Keywords

NDC: Nationally Determined Contribution

The Paris Agreement which is a new international framework for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond 2020 specifies in the Article 2 (Objectives) that holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. To achieve the goal, the Agreement requires each Parties to take domestic measures (reduction target/action) in the Article 4 (Mitigation).

NDC means nationally-determined GHG reduction target based on the Article 4 of the Agreement and mitigation efforts to achieve the target. Parties submit the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a draft of the NDC before the ratification of the Paris Agreement. The INDC is officially registered to the United Nations as the NDC upon ratification of the Paris Agreement and each Party is required to implement the NDC.

The NDC will be required to be implemented beyond 2020. Therefore, until 2020, Parties is making efforts to achieve the 2 °C target through the reduction of GHG emissions based on the Cancun Agreement. Developing countries have also voluntarily developed Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) and have been submitting the implementation reports to the United Nations, while receiving support for financing, technologies, capability building. While there is a pressing need to prepare for the implementation of the NDC and the Paris Agreement, the developing countries have been making good use of such experience from the NAMA.

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