Cooperation for Development and Implementation of Climate Change Plans in Developing Countries

Development and Implementation of Climate Change Plans (NAMA, INDC and NAP) in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) promoted developing countries to take actions for mitigation of climate change, for which developed countries conventionally have taken the initiative. “Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)” were considered in the Bali Action Plan adopted in 2007 and the Cancun Agreements of 2010 stipulated that NAMAs should be implemented in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner until 2020. The Paris Agreement adopted at the COP21 (Paris) in 2015 provided that “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)” will be implemented as an effort to be made between 2020 and 2030, constituting a central part of the legally binding Agreement. Furthermore, in the area of the adaptation to climate change, each country is expected to develop and implement a “National Adaptation Plan.”

OECC has taken proactive steps to cooperate in the development of plans in developing countries, referring to methods for development and implementation of climate change plans and monitoring of the plans in Japan and other countries, while bearing the history of the climate change negotiations under UNFCCC in mind. For example, in Cambodia, Vietnam, Mongolia and Laos, OECC provided support to the development of NAMAs in renewable energy, wastes, power generation, and transportation and traffic, as part of capacity-building projects commissioned by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.

Moreover, in Vietnam, we are conducting the evaluation of low carbon technologies to materialize the implementation of INDC in order to give assistance to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) and the ministries and agencies in charge of respective sectors, as part of assistance given by JICA.

Climate Change Plans for Local Governments

As for mitigation and adaptation measures for climate change efforts by local governments, which are directly relevant with adverse effects caused by economic activities and climate change, are strongly promoted in addition to efforts at the national level.

OECC participated in the development of the “Bangkok Master Plan on Climate Change 2013-2023” through technical cooperation by JICA. In Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, JICA Team worked with Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) five subjects of transportation and traffic, energy, wastes/wastewater, green urban planning and adaptation. We supported BMA to estimate GHG emission in the future and also to elaborate measures to reduce GHG emission in the Master Plan. Additionally, for adaptation measures, we supported the process for coordination among key stakeholders to address challenges such as flooding, coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion. These measures are expected to be implemented on a full scale in the future and OECC is thinking of getting actively involved in assistance for such measures.

Urban greening activity targeted for citizens conducted as part of the Master Plan in July 2015 (Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand)

Urban greening activity targeted for citizens conducted as part of the Master Plan in July 2015 (Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand)

Publication of Case Studies and Manuals

OECC published case studies and manuals related to the climate change plans, utilizing our experiences of giving assistance to the development of the climate change plans at the national and local governments . For example, for the “NAMA Guidebooks” published jointly by OECC, governments of developing countries in Asia, and academic and policy institutes such as the World Resources Institute (WRI) and Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), we performed the following tasks as steps to implement the mitigation of climate change. Moreover, we promote the transfer of experiences, analyzing cases of efforts in each country.

  • Setting of business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios and mitigation goals of GHG emission*
  • Proposal of policy measures to achieve GHG emission reduction
  • Proposal of low carbon technologies to achieve GHG emission reduction
  • Monitoring evaluation of implementation of mitigation measures and implementation of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of GHG reduction
  • Construction and enhancement of organizational systems to implement the plans

NAMA Guidebook

NAMA Guidebook

Furthermore, we also published documents such as manuals for a domestic reporting system related to the implementation of the National Strategy on Climate Change in Vietnam as part of activities of the Support Program to Respond to Climate Change (SP-RCC) by JICA.